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Facteurs de la dégradation du régime hydrique et modèle d’aménagement du bassin-versant en milieu tropical humide insulaire, a l’exemple de Ouzini-Ajaho à Anjouan - Comores

Abstract : For over 30 years, Anjouan, tropical island in the volcanic Comoros archipelago located at the northern entrance of the Mozambique Channel , is experiencing a disruption of the water regime of its basin catchments without any consideration is made. The objective of this research is to identify factors related to this problem and to propose a numerical model development. A multi-scale and multi-date geomatic approach (aerial photographs, satellite images SPOT 5, 2005 QUICKBIRD MNT) supported by observations, field surveys and statistics has permitted to diagnose and to spatialize the main environmental and socio-economic change of the Ouzini - Ajaho watershed with 19 km2, representative working processes in the island. In general, the degradation of water regime of the watersheds is linked to the natural factors exacerbated by human impacts. In respect of cases in the studied area, it faces a less favourable hydrogeological structure to steady flows, drying and climatic hazards. Diachronic monitoring from imaging shows generally that forest cover is retracted at a rate of 1,7 km²/year between 1955 and 2009 and modifying the conditions for infiltration of rainwater. Clove cultures requiring a large amount of water experienced extension. Population growth has promoted the urbanization process at the expense of these plantations and other crops. It follows an increasing exploitation of water resources, wood and alluvial sand which has impacted the morphodynamics and hydrodynamics of the watershed. To remedy this, a management model suitable for cultural, economic and ecological contexts has been proposed.
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https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01105111
Contributor : Aude Nuscia Taibi Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 11:50:24 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 9:00:08 AM

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  • HAL Id : halshs-01105111, version 1

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Mirhani Nourddine, Aude Nuscia Taïbi, Aziz Ballouche, Théodore Razakamanana. Facteurs de la dégradation du régime hydrique et modèle d’aménagement du bassin-versant en milieu tropical humide insulaire, a l’exemple de Ouzini-Ajaho à Anjouan - Comores. Madamines, MadaRevues, 2014, 6, pp.8-21. ⟨halshs-01105111⟩

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