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Dietary switch to Western diet induces hypothalamic adaptation associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats

Abstract : Background: Early hyperphagia and hypothalamic inflammation encountered after Western diet (WD) are linked to rodent propensity to obesity. Inflammation in several brain structures has been associated with gut dysbiosis. Since gut microbiota is highly sensitive to dietary changes, we hypothesised that immediate gut microbiota adaptation to WD in rats is involved in inflammation-related hypothalamic modifications. Methods: We evaluated short-term impact of WD consumption (2 h, 1, 2 and 4 days) on hypothalamic metabolome and caecal microbiota composition and metabolome. Data integration analyses were performed to uncover potential relationships among these three datasets. Finally, changes in hypothalamic gene expression in absence of gut microbiota were evaluated in germ-free rats fed WD for 2 days. Results: WD quickly and profoundly affected the levels of several hypothalamic metabolites, especially oxidative stress markers. In parallel, WD consumption reduced caecal microbiota diversity, modified its composition towards pro-inflammatory profile and changed caecal metabolome. Data integration identified strong correlations between gut microbiota sub-networks, unidentified caecal metabolites and hypothalamic oxidative stress metabolites. Germ-free rats displayed reduced energy intake and no changes in redox homoeostasis machinery expression or pro-inflammatory cytokines after 2 days of WD, in contrast to conventional rats, which exhibited increased SOD2, GLRX and IL-6 mRNA levels. Conclusion: A potentially pro-inflammatory gut microbiota and an early hypothalamic oxidative stress appear shortly after WD introduction. Tripartite data integration highlighted putative links between gut microbiota sub-networks and hypothalamic oxidative stress. Together with the absence of hypothalamic modifications in germ-free rats, this strongly suggests the involvement of the microbiota-hypothalamus axis in rat adaptation to WD introduction and in energy homoeostasis regulation.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03171983
Contributor : Samuel Chaffron Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Tuesday, September 7, 2021 - 2:13:34 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 13, 2021 - 3:52:06 PM

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Mélanie Fouesnard, Johanna Zoppi, Mélanie Pétéra, Léa Le Gleau, Carole Migné, et al.. Dietary switch to Western diet induces hypothalamic adaptation associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats. International Journal of Obesity, Nature Publishing Group, 2021, 45 (6), pp.1271-1283. ⟨10.1038/s41366-021-00796-4⟩. ⟨hal-03171983⟩

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