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Bjorn Stevens 1 Sandrine Bony 2 David Farrell 3 Felix Ament 4 Alan M. Blyth 5 Chiristopher W. Fairall 6 Johannes Karstensen 7 Patricia K. Quinn 8 Sabrina Speich 2 Claudia Acquistapace 9 Franziska Aemisegger 10 Anna Albright 2 Hugo Bellenger 2 Eberhard Bodenschatz 11 Kathy-Ann Caesar 3 Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas 3 Gijs de Boer 12 Julien Delanoë 13 Leif Christopher Denby 14 Florian Ewald 15 Benjamin Fildier 2 Marvin Forde 3 Geet George 1 Silke Gross 15 Martin Hagen 15 Andrea Hausold 15 Karen J. Heywood 16 Lutz Hirsch 1 Marek Jacob 9 Friedhelm Jansen 1 Stefan Kinne 1 Daniel Klocke 17 Tobias Kölling 18, 1 Heike Konow 19 Marie Lothon 18 Wiebke Mohr 20 Ann Kristin Naumann 1 Louise Nuijens 21 Léa Olivier 22 Robert Pincus 23, 12 Mira L. Pöhlker 24 Gregory Roberts 25, 26 Sabrina Schnitt 27 Peter P. Sullivan 28 Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer 2 Jessica Vial 2 Raphaela Vogel 2 Nicola Alexander 3 Lyndon Alves 29 Sophian Arixi 25 Hamish Asmath 30 Gholamhossein Bagheri 11 Adriana Bailey 28 Dariusz Baranowski 31 Alexandre Baron 32 Sébastien Barrau 25 Paul Alan Barrett 33 Andreas Behrendt 34 Arne Bendinger 7 Florent Beucher 25 Sebastien Bigorre 35 Edmund Blades 36 Peter Blossey 37 Olivier Bock 38, 39 Steven Böing 14 Pierre Bosser 40, 41 Denis Bourras 28 Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot 22 Keith Bower 42 H Branger 43 Michal Brennek 44 Alan Brewer 45 Pierre-Etienne Brilouet 18 Björn Brügmann 46 Stefan Buehler 19 Elmo Burke 47 Ralph Burton 5 Radiance Calmer 23 Jean-Christophe Canonici 48 Xavier Carton 49 Gregory Cato Jr. 50 J. Charles 51 Patrick Chazette 32, 52 Yanxu Chen 53 Thomas Choularton 42 Patrick Chuang 54 S. Clarke 55 Hugh Coe 42 C. Cornet 56 P. Coutris 57 Fleur Couvreux 25 S. Crewell 9 T. Cronin 58 Zhiqiang Cui 14 Yannis Cuypers 22 Alton Daley 3 G. Damerell 59 T Dauhut 1 D de Graaf 1 Geiske de Groot 21 S. de Szoeke 60 H Deneke 61 J.-P Desbios 48 Vincent Douet 53 K. Drushka 62 M. Dütsch 62, 63 A. Ehrlich 64 K. Emanuel 58 A Emmanouilidis 64 Jean-Claude Etienne 25 S. Etienne-Leblanc 65 Ghislain Faure 25 G. Feingold 45 L. Ferrero A. Fix Cyrille Flamant 66 Piotr Jacek Flatau 26 Gregory R. Foltz Alan Gadian 14 J Galewsky Martin Gallagher 42 Peter Gallimore 42 C Gaston 67 C Gentemann N Geyskens 68 A Giez C Gourbeyre R Grosz M Gutleben Johannes Güttler 11 Kashawn Hall 3 G Harris Kevin C. Helfer 21 D Henze C Herbert B Holanda Antonio Ibanez-Landeta 11 J Intrieri S Iyer Fabrice Julien 25 H Kalesse J Kazil A Kellman U Kirchner M Klingebiel Mareike Körner 7 Leslie Ann Kremper J Kretzschmar O Krüger A Kurz Pierre l'Hégaret Matthieu Labaste 69 T Lachlan-Cope A Laing P Landschützer T Lang Diego Lange 34 I Lange C Laplace R Laxenaire C Le Bihan M Leandro Nathalie Lefevre 70 Donald Lenschow 28 Q Li Gary Lloyd 42 S Los N Losi O Lovell C Luneau 71 P Makuch S Malinowski G Manta E Marinou Nicholas Marsden 42 Sébastien Masson 72 L Matthieu Nicolas Maury 25 B Mayer M Mayers-Als Christophe Mazel W Mcgeary J Mcwilliams M Mech Melina Mehlmann 7 A Meroni T Mieslinger A Minikin Yanmichel Morfa Avalos Caroline Muller 2 Ionela Musat 2 G Möller A Napoli A Neuberger Christope Noisel 69 D Noone Freja Nordsiek 11 J Nowak L Oswald Douglas Parker 14 C Peck Renaud Person 72 A Plueddemann 35 L Pologne Michal Posyniak 31 M Prange C Pöhlker V Pörtge U Pöschl E Quiñones Meléndez J Radtke Karim Ramage 53 J Reimann Lionel Renault 73 Gilles Reverdin 22 Klaus Reus 7 A Reyes J Ribbe M Ringel M Ritschel C Rocha N Rochetin C Rollo J Röttenbacher Leo Saffin 14 S Sandiford I Sandu V Schemann I Schirmacher Oliver Schlenczek 11 J Schmidt Marcel Schröder 11 H Schulz A Schwarzenboeck M Schäfer A Sealy I Serikov S Shohan E Siddle A Siebesma Florian Späth 34 C Stephan M Stolla Wojciech Szkółka 31 S Tarot E Tetoni E Thompson J Thomson Lorenzo Tomassini 33 Julien Totems 32, 52 L Villiger A Walther B Webber M Wendisch S Whitehall A Wiltshire A Wing M Wirth Jonathan Wiskandt 7 K Wolf L Worbes E Wright V Wulfmeyer S Young D Zhang C Zhang F Ziemen T Zinner P Zuidema M Zöger
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
22 PROTEO - Processus et interactions de fine échelle océanique
LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques
40 Lab-STICC_M3 - Equipe Marine Mapping & Metrology
Lab-STICC - Laboratoire des sciences et techniques de l'information, de la communication et de la connaissance : UMR6285
52 CAE - Chimie Atmosphérique Expérimentale
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
69 DITM - Développement Instrumental et Techniques Marines
LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques
70 ABC - Austral, Boréal et Carbone
LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques
72 NEMO R&D - Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean
LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques
Abstract : The science guiding the EUREC$^4$A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC$^4$A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC$^4$A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced groundbased cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air–sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC$^4$A explored – from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview of EUREC$^4$A’s outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement
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Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan M. Blyth, et al.. EUREC4A. Earth System Science Data, Copernicus Publications, 2021, 13 (8), pp.4067-4119. ⟨10.5194/essd-13-4067-2021⟩. ⟨hal-03023368v3⟩



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